Znanstvenici i autori

Naš rad kroz osobni razvoj i školu za terapaute podrazumijeva integrativan pristup znanjima o čovjeku i nastoji uključiti što više postojećih koncepata koja pružaju istinsko razumijevanje čovjeka i njegovih problema te integrirati one terapeutske pristupe koji omogućavaju rješavanje tih problema. Programi Roditeljstvo i rani razvoj, Osobni razvoj i Trening za terapeute su razvijeni integracijom spoznaja i radova mnogih znanstvenika i autora koje ćemo navesti u ovoj rubrici. U našem radu njegujemo avangardni pristup razumijevanju čovjeka kroz povezivanje uma i tijela preko emocija, kao i odlučujući utjecaj kvalitete emocionalnih odnosa na neurološki, ali i energetski ustroj čovjeka. Utjecaj kvalitete interpersonalnih odnosa na unutarnje stanje osobe, njenu fiziologij te neurološki i energetski sustav sagledavamo kako kod ranog odnosa djeteta sa skrbnicima, tako i kasnije u partnerskim odnosima te u individualnom radu klijenta s terapeutom.

Koliko osobno duboko možemo ući u svoj nutarnji svijet emocija i podsvjesnih obrazaca te razriješiti unutarnju problematiku, između ostalog, proradom zablokiranih emocija te tako formirati zreli i cjeloviti ego, toliko visoko se možemo povezati s duhovnim aspektima i početi živjeti smislenijim životom povezani s nečim većim od svog ega. U tom cilju su razvijeni naši programi koji objedinjavaju radove navedenih znanstvenika i autora koji u biti govore o istoj temi spoznavanja čovjeka samo s različitih pozicija.

Znanstvenici i autori na čijim radovima su razvijeni naši programi

Razumijevanje ranog razvoja

Među prvima su važnost ranih iskustava iz prvih godina djeteta, pogotovo trumatskih kroz svoj rad sagledali još Sigmund Freud, Joseph Breuer, Pierre Janet, ali društvo tada i još dugo nije bilo spremno prihvatiti da je rana trauma (pogotovo rano seksualno zlostavljanje) najčešći uzrok psiholoških problema kod žena tada nazivanih histerija.
Dr. Jean Piaget otvara vrata razumijevanju djetetovog razvoja, pogotovo kognitivnog.

O važnosti emocionalnih iskustava sa skrbnicima iz prvih godina djeteta se govori još od vremena Dr. Otto Ranka koji postavlja koncept objektnih relacija, a Dr. Melanie Klein, Dr. R.  Fairbairn i drugi nastavljaju unaprjeđivati taj važan koncept.  Dr. Konrad Lorenz sagledava poriv za instinktivno emocionalno povezivanje životinja sa skrbnicima, a Dr. Harry Harlow kroz svoje povijesno važne eksperimente otkriva koje posljedice kod djece i mladunčadi majmuna ostavlja nedostatak majčinstva. Njegov suradnik Dr. James W. Prescot nastavlja njihov zajednički rad razvijajući koncept korijena nasilnosti kod čovjeka.

Teorija povezanosti (privrženosti)  ili Attachment theorhy Dr. Johna Bowlbya sredinom pedesetih konačno postavlja koherentnu teoretsku osnovu kroz koju se  počinje sagledavati i razumijevati važnost kvalitete odnosa djeteta sa skrbnicima (primarno majkom) za njegovo cjeloživotno funkcioniranje. Radovi Dr. Donalda Winnicotta koji duboko sagledava organizmičku vezu majke i djeteta, Dr. Marie Ainsworth koja razvija Strange situation eksperiment za utvrđivanje tipa povezanosti, kao i prethodnika kao što su Dr. Margaret Mahler koja postavlja koncept razvojnih faza simbioze i separacije, Dr Daniel Stern koji povezuje psihoanalizu s novim razvojnim modelima razumijevanja ranog razvoja, P. Fonagy i dr. su počeli razvijati stvarnu sliku o čovjeku i preduvjetima njegovog cjelovitog razvoja u ranom formativnom periodu.

Dr. William i Martha Sears uspješno (konačno zvanično) uključuju Bowlbyjev koncept emocionalne povezanosti (privrženosti) u praktično roditeljstvo i daju ogroman doprinos širenju ovih spoznaja u društvo kroz svoje knjige.

Dr. Gordon Neufeld daje svjež i suvremen pristup razumijevanju djeteta i viziju cjelovitog roditeljstva.

Dr. Joseph Chilton Pearce otvara nove dimenzije u razumijevanju ranog perioda.

Razumijevanje partnerskih odnosa

Koncept sigurne i nesigurne emocionalne povezanosti (privrženosti) djeteta kroz radove Dr. Mary Main, Dr. Kim Batolomew i Dr. Leonard Horowitz omogućava sagledavanje i opisivanje stilova vezivanja kod odraslih i korijena problematičnog funkcioniranja u ljubavnim odnosima.

Ti uvidi su omogućili razvoj psihoterapijskih pravaca za rad s parovima koje razumiju stvarni korijen partnerski nesporazuma i emocionalne boli. Dr. Harwille Hendrix, sagledavajući kako naše nesvjesno odabire za partnera osobu koja ima tendenciju povrjeđivanja kao što su imali roditelji razvija Imago terapiju, a Dr. Sue Johnoson razvija Emotionally focused theraphy (EFT) koja kroz proces od devet koraka vodi par ka sagledavanju obostrano nenamirivanih primarnih potreba (attachment needs) i emocionalnom zbližavanju.

Razvoj terapeutskih koncepata za rad sa šok traumom i ranom traumom

Iznimnu ulogu u razumijevanju čovjeka je odigrao rad Dr. Wilhelma Reicha i Dr. Alexandera Lowena koji su među prvima počeli povezivati psihu i tijelo i otvorili put tjelesno orijentiranoj psihoterapiji. Koncept karakternih obrana i somatiziranih emocionalnih oklopa pruža potpuno novi način razmišljanja o posljedicama ranih povrjeđujućih emocionalnih iskustava i otvara put novom psihoterapeutskom pravcu rada s tijelom.
Dr. John Pierrakos razvija s Dr. Alexanderom Lowenom Institut bioenergetike, a s Evom Pierakos razvija Core energetic koncept terapije, a koji stavljaju rad s tijelom u centar psihoterapije.

Za razliku od klasičnih talk theraphy te analitičkih psihoterapija, tjelesno orijentirane psihoterapije rade ne dubljim dijelovima mozga, na autonomnom živčanom sustavu, na somatiziranim posljedicama povrjeđujućih iskustava i proradom zablokiranih ili potisnutih emocija čine korjenite promjene u nervnom, energetskom i fiziološkom sustavu osobe što mijenja unutarnje emocionalno stanje i posljedično omogućava promjenu načina razmišljanja i viđenja problema.
Dr. Peter Levine daje enorman doprinos rješavanju traume kroz razvoj Somatic experiencing koncepta terapiranja. Dr. David Berceli sagledava važnost tremora za rješavanje traume i razvija Tension stress trauma release (TRE).

Dr. Janina Fisher i Dr. Pat Ogden nastavljaju razvijati ovo područje kroz Sensorymotor psychotheraphy institute u cilju rješavanja posljedica traumatskog stresa i nesigurne povezanosti (privrženosti).
Ron Kurtz kroz Hakomi metodu i Hakomi institut razvija još jedan dragocjen pristup dubokoj nutarnjoj transformaciji čovjeka.

Dr. Jaak Panksep kroz svoj rad na životinjama daje razumijevanje primalnih emocija koje rukovode našim ponašanjem i ukazuje na to kako je poremećaj u njihovom procesiranju u osnovi psihičkih i somatskih zdravstvenih odstupanja.

Razvoj energetskih terapautskih pristupa

Najcjelovitiji doprinos razumijevanju energetskog funkcioniranja ljudskog sustava te posljedicama traume i povrjeđujućih iskustava na energetski sustav tijela dale su Barbara Ann Brennan i Anodea Judith koje su neovisno koncept karakternih obrana objasnile kroz promjene u energetskim centrima i energetskom sustavu i dale novu perspektivu koja je uključila i energo terapiju u rad s ranom traumom.

Iznenađuje koliko je područje bioenergetike komplemetarno neuroznanstvenim spoznajama i tjelesno orijentiranim psihoterapeutskim pravcima te kako integriranje ovih pristupa daje cjelovitiji uvid u funkcioniranje čovjeka te razumijevanje posljedica povrjeđujućih iskustava kao i načina njihovog razrješavanja.

Interpersonalna neurobiologija

Zanimljivo je da danas najviše spoznaja o preduvjetima cjelovitog ranog razvoja (roditeljstvu) te o otklanjanju posljedica neadekvatnog ranog razvoja (psihoterapiji) dolazi upravo iz područja neuroznanosti. Zahvaljujući radu suvremenih eminentnih znanstvenika koji imaju sposobnost integracije različitih grana znanosti posljednjih desetak godina se rađa nova znanost interpersonalna neurobiologija (IPNB) koju jako dobro razumiju oni koji djeluju na području ranog razvoja i na području tjelesno orijentiranih psihoterapeutskih pravaca.

O interpersonalnoj neurobiologiji danas govore mnogi aktualni znanstvenici od kojih je najpoznatiji Dr. Daniel Siegel koji je i osnivač IPNB-a. Njegov doprinos razvoju i popularizaciji ovih važnih spoznaja je nemjerljiv.

Dr. Allan Schore nadograđuje teoriju povezanosti i postavlja koncept teorije regulacije te briljantno integrira neuroznanost i razvojne pristupe. Njihov rad je u srži svih programa ovog Centra.

O ranoj razvojno-odnosnoj traumi

Dr. Bessel van der Kolk sa suradnicima postavlja povijesni Prijedlog za uvrštavanje rane razvojne traume u DSM 5 i time otvara put za službeno prihvaćanje i razumijevanje utjecaja interpersonalne rane traume na razvoj mozga.  Proposal to include a delopmental disorder diagnosis for children and adolescents in DSM5

Dr. Bruce Perry nastavlja kroz svoj rad u Child trauma academy produbljivati i širiti saznanja o utjecaju povrjeđujućih iskustava na biologiju mozga i time ne ponašanje djeteta i sutrašnje osobe.

O utjecaju rane traume na cjeloživotno zdravlje

Dr. Vincent Felitty i dr. Robert Anda razvijaju Adverse child experience (ACE) study koja po prvi put na više od 17.000 ispitanika pokazuje jasne posljedice ranih povrjeđujućih iskustava na fizičko i psihičko zdravlje odraslih te na dužinu života.

Dr. Gabor Mate kroz svoje knjige i svoj rad dorinosi širenju spoznaja o vezi ranih povrjeđujućih iskustava s oboljenjima u odraslom periodu kao što su, karcinom, artritis, kardiovaskularne bolesti … te ukazuje na stvarne korijene ovisnosti.

Dr. J Schonkoff i drugi znanstvenici s Harvarda kroz Center on developing child  polako mijenjaju paradigmu o roditeljstvu, medicini, psihoterapiji…i jasno i nedvojbeno ukazuju na nužnost da društvo učini pomake u podršci roditeljstvu i ranom razvoju kako bi time preveniralo veliki dio bolesti i zdravstvenih problema kroz život i ukazuje na ranu traumu kao glavni korijen psiholoških, ali i somatskih problema u odraslosti.

Transpersonalna razina

Transpersonalne razine u razumijevanju čovjeka, njegove podsvijesti, kolektivne svijesti te sagledavanje duhovnih iskustava je počeo razotkrivati C.G. Jung, a rad Dr. S. Grofa nam omogućava uvid i određeno razumijevanje dimenziju čovjeka koja je dublja od ega.

Teoretsku podlogu koja omogućava integriranje svih ovih radova, koncepata i načina razumijevanja čovjeka daje Ken Wilber koji razrađuje Spiralnu dinamiku svijesti Dr. Clare Gravesa i njegovih učenika Don E. Becka i Christophera Cowana. Wilberova Integralna teorija je osnova razumijevanja čovjeka u našoj školi i omogućava nam da uvidimo istinitost u svakom konceptu i pristupu bez obzira na njihovu različitost i međusobno nepriznavanje te kroz konzilijarnost i sinergiju ostvarimo cjelovit pogled na čovjeka te uzroke i načine rješavanja njegovih problema.

Allan N. Schore

Allan Schore

Allan N. Schore is a leading researcher in the field of neuropsychology, whose contributions have influenced the fields of affective neuroscience, neuropsychiatry, trauma theory, developmental psychology, attachment theory, pediatrics, infant mental health, psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, and behavioral biology.

Schore is on the clinical faculty of the Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, and at the UCLA Center for Culture, Brain, and Development. He is author of the seminal volume Affect Regulation and the Origin of the Self, now in its 11th printing, and two recent books Affect Dysregulation and Disorders of the Self and Affect Regulation and the Repair of the Self, as well as numerous articles and chapters.Saznajte više

Schore is Editor of the acclaimed Norton Series on Interpersonal Neurobiology, and a reviewer or on the editorial staff of 27 journals.

Schore’s activities as a clinician-scientist span from his theoretical work on the enduring effect of early trauma on brain development, to neuroimaging research on the neurobiology of attachment and studies of borderline personality disorder, to his biological studies of relational trauma in wild elephants, and to his practice of psychotherapy over the last 4 decades. He leads Study Groups in Developmental Affective Neuroscience & Clinical Practice in Los Angeles, Berkeley, Portland, Seattle, Boulder, Austin and Albuquerque; lectures internationally; and is a member of the Commission on Children at Risk for the Report on Children and Civil Society, “Hardwired to Connect”.

http://www.allanschore.com/

Daniel Siegel

D. Siegel

Siegel completed his medical degree from Harvard Medical School and his post-graduate medical education at UCLA. His training is in pediatrics and child, adolescent and adult psychiatry. Siegel was the recipient of the UCLA psychiatry department’s teaching award and several honorary fellowships for his work as director of UCLA’s training program in child psychiatry and the Infant and Preschool Service at UCLA. He is a Distinguished Fellow of the American Psychiatric Association and is the Executive Director of the Mindsight Institute.

Siegel is the author of several books on parenting and child development including The Mindful Brain: Reflection and Attunement in the Cultivation of Well-Being published by WW Norton in 2007 The Developing Mind: Toward a Neurobiology of Interpersonal Experience published by the Guilford Press in 1999 and Parenting from the Inside Out, which he co-wrote with Mary Hartzell in 2003 and was published by Tarcher.Saznajte više

Siegel is known as a mindfulness expert and for his work developing the field of Interpersonal Neurobiology, which is an interdisciplinary view of life experience that draws on over a dozen branches of science to create a framework for understanding of our subjective and interpersonal lives.

Siegel’s most recent work integrates the theories of Interpersonal Neurobiology with the theories of Mindfulness Practice and proposes that mindfulness practice is a highly developed process of both inter and intra personal attunement.

http://drdansiegel.com/

Bessel van der Kolk

Bassel van der Kolk

Bessel van der Kolk is a Dutch psychiatrist noted for his research in the area of post-traumatic stress since the 1970s. His work focuses on the interaction of attachment, neurobiology, and developmental aspects of trauma’s effects on people. His major publication, Traumatic Stress: The Effects of Overwhelming Experience on Mind, Body, and Society, talks about how the role of trauma in psychiatric illness has changed over the past 20 years.Saznajte više

Van der Kolk has published extensively on the effect trauma can have on development. He has found connections to dissociative problems, borderline personality disorder, self-mutilation, and a wide range of other issues.[1]

He was a co-principal investigator in the PTSD field trials for the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).[1]

Currently, he is researching how trauma can affect memory. He is also working on brain imaging studies with PTSD patients. He is also researching how yoga and neurofeedback can be used as alternative treatments for trauma.[2]

He has served as president of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, medical director of the Trauma Center at JRI in Brookline, Massachusetts, and professor of psychiatry at Boston University School of Medicine.[1]

http://www.traumacenter.org/about/about_bessel.php

Jaak Panksep

Panksepp Jaak

Jaak Panksepp (born June 5, 1943 in Tartu) is an Estonian-born American psychologist, a psychobiologist, a neuroscientist, the Baily Endowed Chair of Animal Well-Being Science for the Department of Veterinary and Comparative Anatomy, Pharmacology, and Physiology at Washington State University’s College of Veterinary Medicine, and Emeritus Professor of the Department of Psychology at Bowling Green State University. Panksepp coined the term ‘affective neuroscience’, the name for the field that studies the neural mechanisms of emotion. He is known in the popular press for his research on laughter in non-human animals.
His present research is devoted to the analysis of the neuroanatomical and neurochemical mechanisms of emotional behaviors (in the emerging fields of affective and social neurosciences), with a focus on understanding how various affective processes are evolutionarily organized in the brain, and looking for linkages to psychiatric disorders and drug addiction.

Barbara Ann Brennan

B. Brennan

Brennan received a Bachelor of Science degree in Physics in 1962 from the University of Wisconsin–Madison, and two years later received her Masters in Atmospheric Physics from the same institution. From 1970, she participated in courses at a number of uncredited institutions, offering courses in the “human energy field”. She completed a two–year program in Therapeutic Counselling at the Community of the Whole Person in Washington, D.C., followed by a three-year program in Core Energetics at the Institute for Core Energetics in New York City in 1978 and a five-year program in Spiritual Healership at the Phoenicia Pathwork Center in Phoenicia, New York in 1979. She was strongly influenced by Eva and John Pierrakos, who founded a system for self-transformation called the Pathwork, drawing on the ideas of Wilhelm Reich and Alexander Lowen. Brennan worked with the Pierrakos, and became a Pathwork Helper and Core Energetics therapist. Brennan also took seminars with and was influenced by Rev. Rosalyn L. Bruyere. She developed her own private healing practice in 1977 and then established a training programme to teach others.Brennan has a PhD in philosophy from Greenwich University in Australia and DTh in theology from Holos University, both earned in 2001.

Anodea Judith

Judith Anodea

Anodea Judith (born Judith Ann Mull, December 1, 1952, Elyria, Ohio) is an American author, therapist, and public speaker on the chakra system, bodymind (body/mind integration), somatic therapy, and yoga. Judith is the author of Wheels of Life: A User’s Guide to the Chakra System. Judith’s academic background includes a Master’s degree in clinical psychology from Rosebridge Graduate School of Integrative Therapy and a doctorate in Health and Human Services (focused on mind-body health) from Columbia Pacific University (an unaccredited, though state-certified, nontraditional distance learning school in California). Judith’s studies in healing have included bioenergetics, psychology, psychotherapy, mythology, sociology, history, systems theory, and mystic spirituality. She is also an authority on chakras and yoga and somatic therapy

Bruce D. Perry

Dr Bruce Perry

Bruce D. Perry, M.D., Ph.D. is an American psychiatrist, currently the Senior Fellow of the ChildTrauma Academy in Houston, Texas and an Adjunct Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago, Illinois. A clinician and researcher in children’s mental health and the neurosciences, from 1993-2001 he was the Thomas S. Trammell Research Professor of Psychiatry at Baylor College of Medicine and Chief of Psychiatry at Texas Children’s Hospital. He also serves as Senior Consultant to the Alberta Minister of Children and Youth Services in Alberta, Canada. Dr, Perry is also a Senior Fellow at the Berry Street Childhood Institute in Melbourne, Australia.

Vincent Felitty

V. Felitti

Dr. Vincent Felitty  –  Clinical Professor of Medicine; Faculty of Department of Medicine, UCSD, 1982 – present
Founder and Chief, Department of Preventive Medicine, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, San Diego, CA 1975-2001
General Director, The Southern California Permanente Medical Group (Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program), 1974-1977, 1980-1985
Captain and Post Surgeon, U.S. Army Medical Corps, Pine Bluff Arsenal, 1963-1965

The Adverse Childhood Experiences Study (ACE Study) is a research study conducted by Kaiser Permanente health maintenance organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).[1] Participants were recruited to the study between 1995 and 1997 and have been in long-term follow up for health outcomes. The study has demonstrated an association of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) with health and social problems as an adult. The study has been analyzed extensively, is frequently cited as a notable landmark in epidemiological research, and has produced more than 50 scientific articles and more than 100 conference and workshop presentations that look at the prevalence and consequences of ACEs.

Harry Harlow

Harry Harlow

Harry Frederick Harlow (October 31, 1905 – December 6, 1981) was an American psychologist best known for his maternal-separation, dependency needs, and social isolation experiments on rhesus monkeys, which manifested the importance of caregiving and companionship in social and cognitive development. He conducted most of his research at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, where humanistic psychologist Abraham Maslow worked with him for a short period of time.

Harlow’s experiments were controversial; they included cultivating infant monkeys in isolation chambers for up to 24 months, from which they emerged intensely disturbed. Some researchers cite the experiments as a factor in the rise of the animal liberation movement in the United States. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Harlow as the 26th most cited psychologist of the 20th century.

Harville Hendrix

H. Hendrix

Harville Hendrix, Ph.D., (born 1935) is an author of relationship self-help books and with his wife Helen LaKelly Hunt is the creator of Imago Relationship Therapy.

Hendrix is best known for his book Getting the Love You Want, a New York Times best-seller, which gained popularity after Hendrix appeared on The Oprah Winfrey Show. He has a Ph.D. in psychology and religion from the Divinity School at the University of Chicago With his wife, he founded the nonprofit organization Imago Relationships International, which trains therapists in Imago Therapy.

Jack P. Shonkoff

Jack Shonkoff _MD

Jack P. Shonkoff, M.D., is the Julius B. Richmond FAMRI Professor of Child Health and Development at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and Harvard Graduate School of Education; Professor of Pediatrics at Harvard Medical School and Boston Children’s Hospital; and Director of the university-wide Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. He currently serves as chair of the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, a multi-university collaboration comprising leading scholars in neuroscience, psychology, pediatrics, and economics, whose mission is to bring credible science to bear on public policy affecting young children. In 2011, he launched Frontiers of Innovation, a multi-sectoral collaboration among researchers, practitioners, policymakers, investors, and experts in systems change who are committed to achieving breakthrough outcomes for young children facing adversity.
Saznajte više


Dr. Shonkoff has received multiple professional honors, including elected membership to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, the C. Anderson Aldrich Award in Child Development from the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the Distinguished Contributions to Social Policy Award from the Society for Research in Child Development. Under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences, he served as Chair of the Board on Children, Youth, and Families and chaired a blue-ribbon committee that produced the landmark report, From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development. He has been a visiting professor or delivered named lectureships at more than 30 universities in the United States and around the world, and he has authored more than 150 publications, including nine books and monographs.

Janina Fisher

Janina Fisher

Janina Fisher, PhD is a licensed Clinical Psychologist and Instructor at the Trauma Center, an outpatient clinic and research center founded by Bessel van der Kolk. Known for her expertise as both a therapist and consultant, she is also past president of the New England Society for the Treatment of Trauma and Dissociation, an EMDR International Association Credit Provider, a faculty member of the Sensorimotor Psychotherapy Institute, and a former Instructor, Harvard Medical School.

Dr. Janina Fisher has been an invited speaker at the Cape Cod Institute, Harvard Medical School Conference Series, the EMDR International Association Annual Conference, University of Wisconsin, University of Westminster in London, the Psychotraumatology Institute of Europe, and the Esalen Institute. Dr. Fisher lectures and teaches nationally and internationally on topics related to the integration of research and treatment and how to introduce these newer trauma treatment paradigms in traditional therapeutic approaches.

John Bowlby

John Bowlby

Edward John Mostyn Bowlby was a British psychologist, psychiatrist, and psychoanalyst, notable for his interest in child development and for his pioneering work in attachment theory. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Bowlby as the 49th most cited psychologist of the 20th century.

In his 1988 work A Secure Base, Bowlby explained that the data were not, at the time of the publication of Maternal Care and Mental Health, “accommodated by any theory then current and in the brief time of my employment by the World Health Organization there was no possibility of developing a new one”. He then went on to describe the subsequent development of attachment theory. Because he was dissatisfied with traditional theories, Bowlby sought new understanding from such fields as evolutionary biology, ethology, developmental psychology, cognitive science and control systems theory and drew upon them to formulate the innovative proposition that the mechanisms underlying an infants tie emerged as a result of evolutionary pressure. Bowlby realised that he had to develop a new theory of motivation and behaviour control, built on up-to-date science rather than the outdated psychic energy model espoused by Freud. Bowlby expressed himself as having made good the “deficiencies of the data and the lack of theory to link alleged cause and effect” in Maternal Care and Mental Health in his later work Attachment and Loss published in 1969.

Ken Wilber

Ken-Wilber

Kenneth EarlKenWilber (born January 31, 1949) is an American writer, philosopher, and public speaker. He has written and lectured about philosophy, sociology, ecology, developmental psychology, spirituality, and mysticism. His work formulates what he calls Integral Theory. In 1998 he founded the Integral Institute.

Ken Wilber’s AQAL, pronounced “ah-qwul”, is the basic framework of Integral Theory. It suggests that all human knowledge and experience can be placed in a four-quadrant grid, along the axes of “interior-exterior” and “individual-collective”. According to Wilber, it is one of the most comprehensive approaches to reality, a metatheory that attempts to explain how academic disciplines and every form of knowledge and experience fit together coherently.[12]
Saznajte više


AQAL is based on four fundamental concepts and a rest-category: four quadrants, several levels and lines of development, several states of consciousness, and “types”, topics which don’t fit into these four concepts.[13] “Levels” are the stages of development, from pre-personal through personal to transpersonal.”Lines” are lines of development, the several domains of development, which may process uneven, with several stages of development in place at the various domains. [note 1] “States” are states of consciousness; according to Wilber persons may have a terminal experience of a higher developmental stage. [note 2] “Types” is a rest-category, for phenomena which don’t fit in the other four concepts.[14] In order for an account of the Kosmos to be complete, Wilber believes that it must include each of these five categories. For Wilber, only such an account can be accurately called “integral”. In the essay, “Excerpt C: The Ways We Are in This Together”, Wilber describes AQAL as “one suggested architecture of the Kosmos”.[15]

The model is topped with formless awareness, “the simple feeling of being,” which is equated with a range of “ultimates” from a variety of eastern traditions. This formless awareness transcends the phenomenal world, which is ultimately only an appearance of some transcendental reality. According to Wilber, the AQAL categories — quadrants, lines, levels, states, and types – describe the relative truth of the two truths doctrine of Buddhism. According to Wilber, none of them are true in an absolute sense: only formless awareness, “the simple feeling of being”, exists absolutely.

Pat Ogden

Ogden Pat

Pat Ogden is a contemporary psychotherapist who developed an approach to therapy called sensorimotor psychotherapy.

Pat Ogden founded the Sensorimotor Psychotherapy Institute, located in Boulder, Colorado. She is the director of the institute, which focuses on educating and training clinicians in sensorimotor therapy techniques used to address developmental, attachment, and trauma issues. Her 2006 book, Trauma and the Body: A Sensorimotor Approach to Psychotherapy, outlines her approach.

Ogden works as a trainer, consultant, and clinician, applying her psychotherapeutic and somatic techniques to various groups of people, including prisoners, trauma victims, and psychiatric patients. Ogden is also the co-founder of the Hakomi Institute with Ron Kurtz.Saznajte više

Ogden developed sensorimotor psychotherapy in the 1970s as she began integrating elements of somatic therapy and psychotherapy in an effort to help her clients address their symptoms. Sensorimotor psychotherapy is a form of somatic psychotherapy that is influenced by neuroscience, cognitive and somatic approaches, attachment theory, and the Hakomi Method. Hakomi is a type of therapy that focuses on the connections between the body and mind through encouraging meditation and mindfulness.

Sensorimotor therapy helps clients uncover unconscious behaviors and habits—both physical and psychological. These habits and behaviors inform a person’s experiences, good and bad. By focusing on mindfulness and becoming fully aware of both the physical and psychological sensations and responses to emotions, a client learns how to change maladaptive responses. Uncovering unconscious behaviors allows a client to understand and change those behaviors. Sensorimotor psychotherapy has shown promise in helping individuals transform emotions and attitudes resulting from trauma.

Susan Johnson

Sue Johnson

Dr. Susan “Sue” Johnson graduated from the University of British Columbia in 1984 with a Doctorate in Counseling Psychology. She reports in various sources that her interested in relationship science and couples therapy grew naturally out of being raised “in an English Pub.” Dr. Johnson describes a fascination with the dance of adult love she watched unfold around her in that pub (and elsewhere).

Sue Johnson is known for her innovative work in the field of psychology on bonding, attachment and adult romantic relationships. Dr. Johnson’s work emerged on the family therapy and psychology field at a time when most couple’s therapy approaches focused on one or more of the following: cognitive and behavioral interventions, improving communication skills, teaching negotiation skills, or applying psychoanalytic theory to the relationship. Dr. Johnson’s focus on emotions and emotional process was often met with disdain or dismissed as it ran contrary to dominant views of emotion as being problematic or unnecessary to address in couples therapy.
Saznajte više


She is the developer of Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) and the founder of the International Centre for Excellence in Emotionally Focused Therapy (ICEEFT), a not for profit research and therapist training institute, where she also serves as Director. Johnson also heads the Ottawa Couple and Family Institute and is Professor Emeritus in Clinical Psychology at the University of Ottawa and Distinguished Research Professor at Alliant University in San Diego, California.

Dr. Johnson reports in the book, Hold Me Tight (2008), that she coded sessions with couples and sought feedback from them about what sessions were most useful and why. This work led to the observation that distress couples get caught in a negative interactional cycle fueled by unexpressed underlying emotions. Couples benefited from learning about this “negative cycle,” but required deeper emotional work with each other to experience “bonding events.” Out of this work, combined with her focus on emotions, led to the development of a 3 Stage Process of Change.

Stage One: De-Escalation of the Couple’s Negative Cycle

Stage Two: Re-Structuring the Couple’s Emotional Bond

Stage Three: Consolidation

To date, there are at least 27 outcome studies indicating that E.F.T. works. It has been recognized by the American Psychological Association as an empirically-validated approach for couples therapy.

Daniel N. Stern

D. Stern

Daniel N. Stern (August 16, 1934 – November 12, 2012) was a prominent American psychiatrist and psychoanalytic theorist, specializing in infant development, on which he had written a number of books — most notably The Interpersonal World of the Infant (1985). Stern’s 1985 and 1995 research and conceptualization created a bridge between psychoanalysis and research-based developmental models.

Stern was born in New York City. He went to Harvard University as an undergraduate, from 1952 to 1956. He then attended Albert Einstein College of Medicine, completing his M.D. in 1960. In 1961, Stern was member of the Freedom Riders, a group of black and white activists challenging racial segregation in the south by traveling together on bus rides.

Saznajte više

He continued his educational career doing research at the NIH in psychopharmacology from 1962–1964. In 1964, Stern decided to specialize in psychiatric care, completing his residency at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. In 1972 he started a psychoanalytic education at Columbia University Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research. For more than 30 years, he worked in research and practice as well in developmental psychology and psychodynamic psychotherapy.

In his research he dedicated his time to the observation of infants and to clinical reconstruction of early experiences. His efforts continue to contribute to currently existing developmental theories.

He was well known as an expert researcher of early affective mother-child bonding. Research and discoveries on the field of affective bonding was one of his leading activities. Before his death, Stern was an honorary professor in Psychology at the University of Geneva, adjunct professor in the department of Psychiatry at the Cornell University Medical School and a lecturer at the Columbia University Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research.[5]

He held Honorary Doctorates at the Universities of Copenhagen, Dk; Palermo, It; Mons Hainaut, Be; Alborg, Dk; Padua, It, Stockholm University. He died, aged 78, in Geneva, Switzerland, following a long illness, having actively contributed to the ongoing work of the Boston Process of Change Study Group only a few months prior.

Wilhelm Reich

W. Reich

Wilhelm Reich (24 March 1897 – 3 November 1957) was an Austrian psychoanalyst. Author of several influential books – most notably Character Analysis (1933), The Mass Psychology of Fascism (1933) and The Sexual Revolution (1936) – Reich became known as one of the most radical practitioners of psychiatry.

Reich’s idea of “muscular armour” – the expression of the personality in the way the body moves – influenced innovations such as body psychotherapy, Gestalt therapy, bioenergetic analysis and primal therapy. His writing influenced generations of intellectuals; he invented the phrase “the sexual revolution”. During the 1968 student uprisings in Paris and Berlin, students scrawled his name on walls and threw copies of The Mass Psychology of Fascism at police.Saznajte više

After graduating in medicine from the University of Vienna in 1922, Reich became deputy director of Freud’s outpatient clinic, the Vienna Ambulatorium. Described by Elizabeth Danto as a large man with a cantankerous style who managed to look scruffy and elegant at the same time, he tried to reconcile psychoanalysis with Marxism, arguing that neurosis originates with sexual and socio-economic conditions, and in particular in a lack of what he called “orgastic potency.” He visited patients in their homes to see how they lived, and had a mobile clinic; he promoted adolescent sexuality and the availability of contraceptives, abortion and divorce, a provocative teaching in Catholic Austria. He said he wanted to “attack the neurosis by its prevention rather than treatment.

From the 1930s, he became increasingly controversial; from 1932 until his death in 1957 all his work was self-published. His teaching of sexual liberation disturbed the psychoanalytic community and his political associates, and his vegetotherapy, in which he massaged his disrobed patients to dissolve their “muscular armour”, violated a major taboo of psychoanalysis. He relocated to New York in 1939, partly to escape the Nazis, and soon after arriving invented the term “orgone” – from “orgasm” and “organism” – for a biological energy he said he had discovered, which he said others called God. In 1940 he started building orgone accumulators, devices that his patients sat inside to harness the reputed health benefits, resulting in newspaper stories about sex boxes that cured cancer.

After two critical articles about him in the magazines The New Republic and Harper’s in 1947, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration obtained an injunction against the interstate shipment of orgone accumulators and associated literature, believing they were dealing with a “fraud of the first magnitude.”Charged with contempt in 1956 for having violated the injunction, Reich was sentenced to two years’ imprisonment, and that summer more than six tons of his publications were burned by order of the court. He died in prison of heart failure just over a year later, days before he was due to apply for parole.

Alexander Lowen

Alexander Lowen

Alexander Lowen (December 23, 1910 – October 28, 2008) was an American physician and psychotherapist. A student of Wilhelm Reich in the 1940s and early 1950s in New York, he developed bioenergetic analysis, a form of mind-body psychotherapy, with his then-colleague, John Pierrakos (February 8, 1921 – February 1, 2001). Lowen was the founder and former executive director of the International Institute for Bioenergetic Analysis in New York City.

Born in New York City, Lowen received a bachelor’s degree in science and business from City College of New York, an LL.B and a J.S.D (a doctorate in law) from Brooklyn Law School. His interest in the link between the mind and the body developed during this time. He enrolled in a class on character analysis with Wilhelm Reich. After training to be a therapist himself, Lowen moved to Switzerland to attend the University of Geneva.Saznajte više

Lowen lived and practiced for the majority of his life in New Canaan, Connecticut. He suffered a stroke in July 2006. The Alexander Lowen Foundation was founded in April 2007 to continue his legacy.[2] Lowen died on October 28, 2008 at the age of 97.

James W. Prescott

J. Prescot

James W. Prescott (born c. 1930) is an American developmental psychologist, whose research focused on the origins of violence, particularly as it relates to a lack of mother-child bonding.

Prescott was a health scientist administrator at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), one of the Institutes of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) from 1966 to 1980. He created and directed the Developmental Behavioral Biology Program at the NICHD where he initiated NICHD-supported research programs to study the relationship between mother-child bonding and the development of social abilities in adult life. Inspired by Harry Harlow’s famous experiments on rhesus monkeys, which established a link between neurotic behavior and isolation from a care-giving mother, Prescott further proposed that a key component to development comes from the somesthetic processesSaznajte više

(body touch) and vestibular-cerebellar processes (body movement) induced by mother-child interactions, and that deprivation of this stimulation causes brain abnormalities. By analogy to the neurotic behavior in monkeys, he suggested that these developmental abnormalities are a major cause of adult violence amongst humans.

Prescott also served as assistant head of the Psychology Branch of the Office of Naval Research (1963 to 1966) and as president of the Maryland Psychological Association (1970 to 1971). In 1973 he was one of the signers of the Humanist Manifesto.